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The iron capital of the Urals

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Source Nizhny Tagil practically know all its inhabitants - the factory. But few know that the Nizhny Tagil Iron and iron-smelting and iron works was to appear much earlier among the first few in the Urals. The head of the Siberian order Vinius Andrew wrote April 7, 1697 1 Peter: "Found exceedingly good ore from the magnet, iron, and those that wrote of Galanskov land, better to be impossible." Already this year, in the course of expeditions near Magnet-Mount (High) looks for space and materials for the construction of metallurgical plants. There was even a prescription Tobolsk governor M.Ya.Cherkasskomu start at Magnet-mountain plant modeled Kamensky. But something in the magistrates did not happen.

In 1702, after the transfer of Nevyansk factory in the hands of Nikita Demidov, Tula breeder and got permission to build the iron-smelting and iron works in the river Tagil. But the former mine owners Urals, the first entrepreneur Tagil adjourned the case - almost twenty years. It is required as an additional treatment to foreign experience, and the introduction of the first major domestic innovation, has predetermined the domination of Russian metal on the world market in the second half HU111 century.

In 1720, at the foot of the High began the construction of two plants - Vyisky and Nizhny Tagil. The first blast furnace was put on Vyisky plant 8 October 1722. This event is considered the founding date of Nizhny Tagil. Blast furnace iron making and iron foundry was blow 25 December 1725.

Yes, our city begins with the plant. But the factory begins ... with a dam. It is the primordial him, because HU111 century pond and dam component of the energy system of any steel plant. The production used the energy of falling water. It is driven blower fur in the domain and finery, raised hammers for crushing ore and ductile metal, rotating rollers calender machine. Plant Hydraulics had for him the same meaning as for the purposes of modern metallurgical enterprise.

The construction of the dam of the Nizhny Tagil factory began in 1720. She was second in the river Tagil. First it appeared at the beginning of HU111 century and employs Verkhnetagilskaya plant (from 1716).

Hydraulic Nizhny Tagil and Vyisky plants, the treasury Kushvinsky designed and built the same specialist - Leonti S. Zlobin, who was a serf of the Vologda district, worked as a master of the dam and Nevyansky Utkinskogo plants. In Nizhny Tagil he could only let the dam Vyisky plant (1722.).

The dam of the Nizhny Tagil factory finishing work nevyanets I.E.Balakin. Zlobin himself was sent in 1723 to the device of the Ekaterinburg plant as technical manager buildings. Akinfiy Demidov also knew Plotinnoye case and he wrote the instructions on this matter. Wilhelm de Gennin was delighted Demidov dams.

Innovative approach and Nikita Demidov Akinfy the construction Tagil Nizhny Tagil plant will be recognized as the capital of the Urals Demidov, its industrial center. "Nizhny Tagil from Mountain High is more than a century, the historic center of the Ural iron industry", - wrote in his diary the famous Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleyev, who was in our city in 1899 at the head of the government commission.

Since the eighteenth century Tagil became the center of the multifaceted activities of breeders Demidov, who managed to combine natural resources truly inexhaustible mountains mineral wealth High - "the richest deposits of iron in the whole world", the highest quality iron and copper ore, vast forests, water resources with a unique mining and metallurgical business management experience and the great achievements of metallurgy and machine building. Nikita Demidov Akinfiy and laid the foundation for the industrial development of the region. They formed the Ural plants eventually powerful mining "empire."

Demidov iron with the stigma of "Old Sable" and "SSNAD" (State Councillor Akinfievich Nikita Demidov) had no rivals on the world commodity market. This iron was melted on charcoal from clean, free from harmful impurities Tagil ore. In 1761 the volume of deliveries of metal on the British market can compare with the Swedish and then far exceeded it.

"Demidov iron" Old Russian sable "... the first time it was imported to the UK for conversion into steel at the beginning of the eighteenth century, when our steel industry barely begun to develop, - wrote the British newspaper« Morning post »in 1851. - Demidov iron greatly contributed to the base of the famous Sheffield products. " As bloomery stripe varietal and iron in the eighteenth century, and sheet and steel rails in H1H century were recognized at the global and Russian metal markets. Plants Nizhnetagilskogo District performed in the most prestigious Russian orders. Until now admired iron lattice bridge in St. Petersburg - Red, Semenovski, Potselueva, the bridge on the Bypass channel, cast in Nizhny Tagil in the early 1 century. In the first half of the 1 century Nizhny Tagil plants were the largest producers of not only iron, and iron, and copper, which ensured the development of industrial bronze in France, and in Russia - the creation of bronze casting.

Basically Nizhny Tagil associated with the steel industry. And few people remember that the Mountain High gave the Urals more Mednorudyanskoe deposit, located "near the Magnetic Mountain to the south ..." By the end of 1820's, the development of the mine was conducted Mednorudyanskogo most primitive and predatory manner and only with the appointment in 1830 F.I.Shvetsova (1805-1855), an expert with the European education, the situation has changed dramatically. In 1842, the copper-smelting factory was built on his initiative. If only 200 tons of copper was produced in 1815, in 1852 - more than 3000 tons.

Mednorudyanskoe field gained world fame because of the huge amount of mined here malachite (930 tons) and finds the unique malachite lumps, which had no cracks and inclusions of gangue, weighing 40 tons. In the "Mining Journal" reported in 1836 that it was "a work that has not yet been met in the crust of the globe." Becoming a monopoly malachite market A.Demidov started the malachite own factory products and began to supply large party in England, Italy, France. Malachite Room of the Winter Palace is decorated with eight malachite columns and pilasters, two fireplaces and a pair of malachite candelabra, which Tagil of more than three tons of stone were delivered. Later, Hall added malachite vases, tables, small things and great rotunda - 1. Nicholas gift N.Demidova Taghilsky malachite columns lined the main altar of St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg. In the middle of the 1 century copper and malachite were three-quarters of exports County products gave 60 per cent of all revenues. In 1916, the mine was worked out, produced 461,000 tons of ore, smelted 115 thousand tons of copper.

Still, major in Nizhny Tagil was iron production. Tagil plant was one of the largest and most advanced not only in the Urals in Russia, but also in Europe. Contemporaries were struck by the size and power Tagil blast furnaces: the height of 9.25 meters, the daily melt of 400 pounds (about 6.5 tons) of iron. In those years, these ovens were considered the best. The factory has a full production cycle of manufacturing iron.

E.G.Kuznetsov (1725-1805gg.), The creator of the unique astronomical clock and music droshky, exhibited in the Hermitage, in the 1770s conducted experiments on the creation of the first in the Urals rolling machines, built the first lathe, obviously for turning rolls. In the 1790s out of the domain of factory spun off into separate "the blast and foundry business." Inside the factory there Molotova flaking, kolotushechnoe boardwalk and finishing facilities for iron. When molotodelnoy factory any special fur factory, which manufactured blowers furs, with copper-smelting factory - department for the production of copper utensils. Total factory had 22 different departments and industries. At the beginning of 1 century they added new: gvozdarnoe, wire, tokarennoe, stone, bochkarnoe production, as well as the "case of cart wheels and water." In H1H century, in order to survive, it had to go to the production of a wide range of the most varied kinds of metal that caused the need for a new, very energy-intensive hire and raskovochnogo redistribution. In 1807, under the leadership of Abraham Sheptaeva mechanics were put into operation two high plate rolling mill with a daily capacity of 200,300 sheets. The most expensive in the range of sheet metal Tagil successfully sold. The plant gradually specialized and costly dressing elite roofing metal.

In 1828-1848 gg. the plant was carried out restructuring of the factory floor and replacement of wooden buildings on the stone. Talented architects A.P.Chebotarёv factory, K.A.Lutsenko, A.I.Komarov created a true masterpiece of industrial architecture, including a newly built two boilers, brass and copper smelting factory, rebuilt the domain and foundries, new cast house with furmovoy factory and stone buildings for water motors rod cars, two-storey stone sub shop, which houses the plumbing, mechanical, Woodworking joinery production, united in September 1842 in Nizhny Tagil "mechanical facility", which quickly became known beyond the Urals. Activities of places has been successful thanks to the extraordinary initiative Mokeeva Paul Petrovich (1815 - 1848 gg.), Engineer, mechanic, educated in England. In the "Mining Journal" in 1843 to talk about it "... it is not too extensive, but very good mechanical institution with excellent machines, where on the orders of the Ural factories were built steam and other cars." In 1870, the mechanical plant is transferred to another, more spacious building, and becomes a machine-building plant.

In the second half of the 1 century factory production developed in the ascending line: for forty years pig iron has increased 3.5 times, and iron and steel manufacture - in 6,3 times. The great achievement of Nizhny Tagil metallurgists was the development of smelting ferromanganese in the blast furnace. One of the first in the Urals Tagil blast furnace held (winter 1884 -. 1885) successful experiments smelting iron with coke. Achievement is and smelting ferromanganese blast furnace in the fourth, building the future scientist metallurgist V.E.Grum Grzhimailo. In 1890 began the industrial application of new technologies - open-hearth and converter steel making methods, the introduction of the hot air and recycling gas in blast furnaces, replacing the primitive water turbines and engines steam engines, the development of metal-working and mechanical industries. This Tagilskoye steelworkers were able to produce on request Motovilikha plant unprecedented in the Urals more bars open-hearth steel weighing 15.5 and 18 tons. As a miracle came to look at them specialists of neighboring plants. Tagil steel cement was considered one of the best.

The high technical level of production evidenced by the fact that since 1840 the wooden water wheels are replaced with metal and hydraulic turbines. In 1895 the city operated power plant with two steam engines and generators, DC: The first 100 horsepower provides electricity to the machine shop, the second (75 horsepower) was intended to cover the plant and flats employees. In 1913, in accordance with the plan of the complete reconstruction of the plant it was built more powerful power plant with two alternators 750 kW each.

In the years 1907-1909 at the Nizhniy Tagil plants burst into the economic and financial crisis, in 1911 began the industrial upsurge. In 1912 it was approved the so-called "restructuring plan Tagil plant" (accelerating the industrialization of production, which aims to increase 3-4 times the smelting of iron (up to 200 thousand tons) and steel production up to a thousand of 160-176 tons. According to the plan in the district was built five more sophisticated in design and powerful domain, three open-hearth furnaces, two converters with a mixer, four rolling mill But Tagil plant reconstruction did not have time to finish -.. the First World war from the main artillery Directorate Tagil plant concludes a lucrative contract to supply ammunition in the amount of 12800000 rubles. The resulting under contract advance 1920000 rubles went to the construction of a new mechanical Vysokogorsky (slug) plant, which went into operation in August 1916.

In January 1918 revolutionary government nationalized the company SNK Decree Nizhny Tagil mining district heirs P.P.Demidova Prince of San Donato. A new industrial history of Nizhny Tagil.

As soon as you stand, the Soviet government in the spring of 1918 announced a competition to create the connection program of the Ural factories and the Siberian fuel. Almost simultaneously, two proposals have emerged. The first is the property of the Ural-Kuznetsk project about the form in which it was implemented. Second, while not rejecting the idea of ​​the Ural-Kuzbass, complement its North Siberian Railway project. Solutions HU1 Congress of the CPSU (b) put an end to discussions on the draft. After that it was immediately given the task of designing Novotagilskogo smelter. According to the initial project is to implement all the best, that there was only an industrial arsenal. Incidentally, the blast furnace plant was created on the model of the most powerful at the time of the American Gary Plant, Rolling Mills offered to make drawings of German firms "Demag" and "Krupp" and etc. But at the first design stage there was a lot of difficulties. For seven years it was created seven options alone master plans. For example, the new composition of the project was approved in March 1937, and in January 1938 it was canceled as "sabotage."

As a result, after ten years of construction plant (1941), his state, and the entire Tagil mining and metals industry is not nearly in line with the plans of bravura 1930s. To start the metallurgical plant it took not 4-5 years, as the optimists believed, and not ten, as the pessimists believed, and a good quarter of a century. Only in the 1950s, steelmakers and miners reached and then surpassed the original design figures. By their technological efficiency of local units were not inferior and even surpassed the best world analogues. In 1958, per ton of pig iron in the United States consumed 850 kg. coke; in England - 947; in Germany - 907, and on NTMK - 678 kg. Only the Swedes, the figure was better - 629 kg. Removal rates of steel per square meter of open-hearth furnace at NTMK was 9.4 tons, forty percent higher than in the US.

But the status of a recognized world center of Nizhny Tagil Metallurgical regained only in 1960 - 1970 years after the creation of the Nizhny Tagil Metallurgical Combine. Order Minchermeta on March 16, 1957 № 113 Novotagilsy Metallurgical Plant named after Kuibyshev plant, refractory and coking plants, Vysokogorsky, Lebyazhinsky Goroblagodatsky and iron mines were united as part of NTMK. The most important figure in the creation of the plant was the first of its director A.F.Zaharov.

Development plans Tagil Metallurgy Kachkanar considering prospects developed after the creation of NTMK. In 1968, the USSR Council of Ministers approved the terms of reference for the reconstruction and development of NTMK, providing iron production to 6.5 million tons per year of steel -. To 7.1 million tons, rolled -. 5.8 million tons of refractories. - 595,000 tons of granulated slag - 1.1 million tons per year.. Although not all of the planned has been done by the end of 1980 NTMK even exceeded design job.

Another major employer is the Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil (today OAO NPK "Uralvagonzavod - Russian scientific proizvodstivennaya corporation uniting companies design and produce military equipment and various modifications of freight railroad cars and cisterns).

The design of this unique enterprise was developed in 1931-1935, respectively, and, as noted in the explanatory note, calculated "in its issue of 60 cars per shift, or 180 cars per day. The plant is on a par with the most powerful Carriage Works ... "At the same time UVZ was more powerful than them several times, because it is not only the wagon, and procuring all primary workshops, giving a completed product for the wagon shops.

The scope of the project in 1936 (size and capacity) is impressive even today. The area of ​​the plant without the township and sorting station is about 400 hectares, and the area only plants - 43 hectares. Every year the factory site had to do 3.2 million tons of cargo.

Special impression was made by wagon shop, which, as noted architect I.Ya.Belsky, "... is one of the biggest plants being built in the second five-year period. The total length of the shop is 843 meters, volume - 1.9 million cubic meters, payroll of employees - 16,700 people. Nowhere in the world does not know the car building plants such power. "

By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War UVZ was on the rise, he has mastered the complex technology of high-volume flow-line production and achieved within the actual constructed their design capacity.

The full benefits of flow-line production emerged during the war years. Based on the Urals Uralvagonzavod tank factory number 183 showed a higher level of technology and organization of production, what is considered the best machine-building plants in Germany. During the war Uralvagonzavod took 13 companies, the best organizers and industry engineers. Selection Uralwagonzavod as a main center of production tanks was not random. Already from the middle of 1940 went understudy search for mass production of the T-34. And, as time has shown, the choice Tagil enterprise justified itself. The war uralvagozavodtsy produced 40 percent of the number of machines that the entire German industry has created nine years. On the front it was sent to 28952 cars. But during the war Uralvagonzavod produced and many other military products. assembly artillery limbers and caissons;: - Back in late 1938 early 1939, three mechanical workshops have been created here manufacturing of wheels for them; manufacture of cases of high explosive bombs and 50 100 kilograms.

During the war, act of scientific and technological research centers: methods of processing parts and the cutting tool; bronekorpusny (automatic submerged arc welding) under the leadership of Paton; and others. The experience in the wartime experience of the mass flow-line production after the war allowed to quickly restore the release of freight cars. In 1950 in potochnro-assembly lines in ever-increasing amounts introduced mechanization and automation equipment (the share of manual work was reduced to 20 percent). Over the past 30 years, wagon production has undergone radical changes, and the whole factory is fully technically updated. Today OAO NPK "Uralvagonzavod", which operates the world's best tank building a school, spent most manufacturing freight wagons cycle and tank, perfectly put the production of construction machinery and consumer goods - a great future.

Well-established organization and advanced technology brought two major enterprises in the city - NTMK and UVZ - at the forefront of the country and the world. But next to them were and are very solid and well-known far beyond the borders of Nizhny Tagil "Uralchimplast", which is now implementing a very important project for the city, "Chemical Park" Tagil ", began construction of a methanol plant; Metalwork Plant, whose products are in demand, widely used in the construction of Olympic facilities; Chemical Plant "Planta"; trust "Tagilstroy"; boiler and radiator factory and dozens of others.

Everything that has been done by many generations tagilchan always draws its origin, source. Not by chance in getting acquainted with the city constantly asks the question: "Where have all gone" on his part said Goethe: "If you want to know the poet, visited him at home." So if you want to feel the power of Nizhny Tagil, heavy industry which is nearing its trёhsotletiyu, come to this beautiful, distinctive city of miners, metallurgists, machine engineers, chemists, artisans rise on the Fox hill, visited primordial city - dam, wait on the shore Tagil pond, water is the history of mining and metallurgical region is lost in the mists of time.

 

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